Having a fully motivated employer, employees is an advantage not only for business but any organizations which looking for increase their productivity, quality with minimum absenteeism. What motivate workers, the motivational factors could be pay, working conditions and job security, promotional or recognition, decision making involvement or simply working in a team. Motivation, what motivates countries, politicians, doctors, man, women, in fact what motivate you? Before we get in to the big points let me clarify in simple, what motivation is. From the day we were born till the end we do lot of things in our lives. Sometimes to do those there is driven factors, sometimes not. Hunger and love as a kid, education and a good job as a young adult, a house, marriage and children, travelling around the world as a grown.
So if we can remember what tempt us to do those, there could be thousand different reasons but the main driven factor is none other than motivation. In other words what is the reason for their actions, that which gives objects and direction to behavior. 'The processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal' (Robbins, Judge, Millett & Watters-Marsh, 2008, p.180). in simple some of my friends do not like read our text book, reading half an hour is like the end of the world but same time if it is an interesting book by Stephen King they would finish it within one day. What motivates them, how much effort will they invest on a task these are the main areas we have to put in to consideration when go through this research.
Motivation is all about needs and wants that drive an individual's, groups or countries. People behave in a total different way when they are motivated. Key to motivation is finding the importance of an object or a task to a particular individual. It can be varies even within an individual too, for instance X person like to work and highly enthusiastic when he/she's at Y place but not Z place. Motivation is one of the most argued issues, many books have been written on the subject in management, because there is no proper way or a text book way, reminding contingency theory. Different approaches uses by different companies, departments to motivate their employees to get best out of them. So it can be a small or a multinational company but when it is come to motivation, it is no longer about the size of or the number of employees. That is why lately researches do more and more studies and working examples on Intrinsic Motivation which is self driven rather than Extrinsic, more like forcing motivation.
Needs hierarchy of Maslow (1954) says humans are tend to go step by step with needs when they seeking satisfaction. Ones you reach that level, that is not a motivated factor anymore but something else. For instance when we are hungry we want something to eat, hunger motivates us to find some food but after we want some place to relaxed, shelter. A typical day to day routine but it gives us whole different approaches of motivation. So how do we motivate our staff or colleges as a manager or a team leader. One of the biggest problems in a business is managing people. This is because diversity, skilled levels or simply lack of highly skilled employer employees. 'hierarchy of five needs-physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization-exists such that as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant' (Robbins et al 2008, p.181).
Therefore when we designing a system of motivation we have to think our employees or teams in which stage according to Maslow's needs hierarchy. Somehow there are some disadvantages to Maslow's theory, because some works tend to draw on to upper levels before they pass lower levels. Therefore this has not been the best so theories. If you designing this system for a developing country then those workers would consider about the lower order needs which is satisfied externally, physiological and safety needs rather than higher order needs which is satisfied internally, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. On the other hand, if you designing this to a country like Australia, you cannot just satisfied your employees by giving a good pay.
Nowadays generally most of our needs and wants became more and far complicated than olden days. Douglas McGregor (1960) is one of the leaders of management theory came up with two theories called X and Y. in his book he stated an assumption that employees those who does not like to work are lazy, does not like responsibilities required to be coerced to perform as theory X. in theory Y he said assumption that those who like to work are creative, responsible and self driven. McGregor on himself belief that theory Y is way more suitable than theory X, because in a work place responsible, challenging jobs, collective decision making can maximize motivation of works. Therefore suing X theory, we can design a good system rather than using Maslow's, because it has more contemporary approach. Managers are more able of doing self control, direction if they motivated to accomplish their goals. Again this all are depends with the attitude of managers and works.
When we talk about theories of motivations there are many more to add, but for this research to design a system of motivation there are three important theories. Which is McClelland's theory of needs, Cognitive evaluation theory and goal setting theory. There also called contemporary theories of motivation. These ones basically about setting our mind rather than giving rewards physically. How to set our mind when we working means, at this very moment you may have most of the things that anyone could ask from a job but still you haven't reach your potential. That is why we can take of use of these theories to design the motivational system.
As I mentioned before sometimes it is not all about giving a good pay to your employees but to make them what they are doing. When you deciding a life of a company, staff have become the backbone. To satisfy staffs we can use a system of motivation and rewards which help them to work more efficiently same time we can attract more staffs who highly skilled and performing well. 'the integration Motivation strategy emphasizes performance and satisfaction equally' (Carlopio, 2005, p.411). How do we do this through effective managers with a well design system. You may not fully satisfy both of them at the same time but it is worth of trying. We have to put together a good learning environment to enhance employees' motivation. Why, then they can learn from their mistakes and move forward. 'So, the learning environment should be comfortable, but do not expect h and expensive surroundings to increase motivation to learn' (Delahaye, Brian, 2005, p.256). What does he mean by that is, you cannot expect to be your work place is a kindergarten class room. As a employee you can make mistakes but at the end of the day you have to run the mile by yourself.
When you designing the system it should not be general, remembering one size fits all. It has to be specific with their country, learning, skills, culture and not forget the needs of the company. 'The program should fit the work culture and the company need' (Weiss, 2006, p.13). simply if designing this to Australia, here people does not like to work in weekends even though they getting more money, because they love their leisure times with their loved ones. On the other hand people from Asian countries, they would not mind at all working in weekends because them simply getting more money, two totally different perceptions. 'To provide a fun and enjoyable workplace, coordinate group outings that relate to the culture and interests of the techs and salesmen' (Fralix, 2008, p.19). The more employees feel relaxed at work the more satisfied and the productive there are will be.
What are the main different in workforces between United States, Australia and India, China. We can think of lot of differences but the mainly diversity. In China and India we rarely see foreigners working, on the other hand in USA and Australia it is all about multicultural workforce. 'A divers work force requires unique rewards to motivate different employees' (Buhler, 2000, p.19). You simply cannot ignore this multiculturalism wave. In order to well being and successfulness of the company we have to consider this issue when we designing motivation system. Equity is one of the most important terms in a work place. We have to make sure that we going to be equal to everyone at least in the same level. If you favor some employees because they are from a certain group of culture, this motivational system will not work.
However designing a motivational system is a really hard task and it cannot be done by overnight. Clearly it will take lots of surveys, readings, travelling and time. 'Motivation theory conveys two important messages. First, there are no simplistic solutions to increasing motivation. No single lever such as performance-related pay exists is guaranteed to act as an effective motivator' (Armstrong, Murlis, 2007, p. 62). Therefore, even if you decide to give a good pay to increase the motivation, simply it is not just enough but we have to build the working environment look good and feel good as well. 'It's important to create the right working conditions with the right climate of attitudes and beliefs if you are going to work smarter or think differently' (Alfeld, 2003,p.33). Which is more important to a worker, if you ask money would come first in the short run, but in the long run it would be an interesting working environment. The easiest way simply ask from workers, what would like to do. This will specially work on a company with a production line, so can get the best out of them.
However even though they have reasonable pay with a good working environment if they do not feel like "this place like a second home to me, my colleges are like ma family. So I'm going to work hard and give the very best to this company". 'In many very small companies, a natural sense of ownership often develops among the employees. 'However, as companies grow, feelings of ownership and commitment start to decline' (Wiley, 1992, p.15). So if we designing this system to a relatively large company with an excessive number of employees what we can ask our supervisors and managers to remember workers name. Because in a large work place the first thing you feel as you enter, you are invisible. So the same time if your manager or your supervisors can remember your name automatically you feel the bond between you and the company. From this you can simply motivate your staffs yet very effective.
Finally one of the most important things of motivation is employee rewarding system. If you can pull up this job perfectly even though you may have some draw backs from those points I mentioned earlier, you still can motivate your staff. I would suggest this is the best motivator. 'The closer you can match the employee's self-reward system to the work assignment, the more the employee will value the assignment, and that's a strong motivational trigger' (Romei, 1995, p.13). Yes it is a big company with a large numbers of employees, what we can do give a report to workers after a large task, especially those needs attention. This may sound more work to those supervisors and managers, but if you be able to do this outcomes will be surprising. However I'm going conclude this research reminding that even though you have a perfect motivation system with this all still human nature they want something different. So we have to keep do changes to this system of motivation and the same time we have to keep this in our minds, people they never cannot be fully satisfied.
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