* Family Structure


Family structure simply refers to the diversity of types of family unit composition. Basically the term 'family' mostly portrays the conventional family unit which consist of biological parents and children, commonly known as nuclear family, there are some other family structure are also common which include single-parent family or even couple-only family. Other family types include couple with no children, living alone and extended family structure including cohabiting relatives.

The distribution of such family structures vary country to country with the proportions of couple-only families and single parent families with dependent children increasing, And proportion of couple families with children have decreased, especially those with dependent children. Between the year 1991 and 2000, there was a prominant decrease in number of nuclear family units with an increase in single parent family units in the USA, and this similar trend was observed in Australia also between 1976 and 2001. For the time period between 1979 and 1998, there was a decline in number of couples with dependent children from 31 to 23% and an increase from 4 to 7% in single parent families in the UK. In Japan, there was an increase in single-person households from 1990 to 2005. The trend in family structures in developing countries are also varying, with extended family structures being replaced by nuclear families resulting in increases in number of elderly people living alone.

Increases in single and couple-only family structures have been observed worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. In 1991, 51.1% of North American family households had no one under 18 living with them. The 1993 Basic Survey on National Life by the Ministry of Health and Welfare reported that childless families accounted for 65 percent of all families in Japan. The increase in 'alone' and 'couple only' family types is synonymous with the increase in aging population and decline fertility rate experienced in many countries with increases in delaying marriage.

* Education

Marks, Gary 1990 "Ascription and achievement: Trends in Australian education" Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology (http://www.international-survey.org/wwa_pub/articles/hst-ed5.htm)

Educational Trends

Educational levels have risen rapidly over the 20th century, continuing the trends noted in prior research (Broom et al. 1980; Evans and Kelley 1995; Marks, Ganzeboom, and Zagorski 1995):

  1. On average, Australians born before 1930 -- who would mostly have been in school in the 1930s and 1940s -- achieved 9.3 years of education (table 1). Only 22 percent of them persisted to finish year 12 at school. Of those few who finished year 12 in school, just 27 percent on to complete unversity, so in all just 6% of the age cohort completed university.

  2. The average number of years of education completed rose to 10.0 years for those born in the 1930s. 27% completed year 12 and 8% finished university.

  3. Educational levels rose to 10.9 years for those born in the 1940s, with 37% completing year 12 and 14% finishing university.

  4. Those born in the 1950s -- who would have been getting their education in the 1960s and 1970s -- did even better, getting 11.7 years on average. 47% completed year 12 and 20% completed university. Mid-life attendance at university became increasingly common in these years, so a fair few them would have first left school for some years but later returned as adults to continue their education (Evans 1993).

  5. As for those born since 1960, average educational levels rose to 11.9 years. For the first time in Australian history, more than half , 55%, finished secondary school. No less than 21% finished university (and some unknown further number will later return to finish university as "mature-age" students).

The total change in average educational levels over this period is a gain of 2.6 years: on average, people born since 1960 have about two and one half years more education than did people born before 1929. Correspondingly, the percentage completing secondary school has risen 33% (from 22% to 55%) over the same period. The percentage of university graduates has risen 15% over the period (from 6% to 21%).

Why are Australians Better Educated Now than in the Past?

Many things have changed over the course of the course of the 20th century. Perhaps the most conspicuous changes in Australia, as in most Western nations, has been the growth of cities, the sharp decline in family size, and economic growth. All of these are implicated in educational change (table 2).

We estimate the size of their impact on years of schooling by ordinary least squares regression (following the methods of Alwin and Hauser) and the impact on finishing year 12 and finishing university by similar methods based on logistic regression (see appendix).

Urbanization. The 'push' of declining farm and rural employment and the 'pull' of high-paying skilled jobs in the cities have led to an exodus from the land and the rapid growth of cities. In this, Australia is like most modern nations. Schooling has always been more easily available in urban places, so this change alone has increased educational levels. Our regression estimates show that between 5% and 7% of the change over the century is due to urbanization (table 2, line 2).


* income

http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/6302.0/

      In the twelve months to May 2009, full-time adult total earnings rose by 5.6% for males and 5.0% for females.
    Full-time adult ordinary time earnings rose by 6.5% for males and 5.2% for females in the twelve months to May 2009.


    From the August 2009 issue of this publication, industry statistics will be presented on the basis of the new edition (2006) of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). An Information Paper: Changes to Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (cat.no.6302.0.55.002) will be released on 5 November 2009, describing the major changes to Average Weekly Earnings.

    This issue is the last release of industry data on the basis of the 1993 edition of ANZSIC.

    For further details see paragraphs 10 to 13 of the Explanatory Notes.



    Movements in average weekly earnings can be affected by both changes in the level of earnings per employee and changes in the composition of the labour force. For example, changes in the proportions of full-time, part-time, casual and junior employees and variations in the distribution of occupations can affect movements in earnings series. Refer to paragraphs 23 and 24 of the Explanatory Notes.


    For information on sampling error see the Technical Note at the end of this publication. Standard errors for the original estimates contained in this publication are in tables 18 to 20.


    For further information about these and related statistics, the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070 or Tony Carolan on Perth (08) 9360 5304.


    * family size

    Changes in Family Size.

    In Australia, like most of the the Western countries, fertility levels fluctuated in the early decades of the 20th century, peaked in the post-war 'baby boom' and then it continuous declined in recent decades to its current level of around two children per couple. In Australia large families are seems to be an educational disadvantage, as in most nations. probably the reason is parents who have large families need to divide their money, time and energy over a large number of children in contrast parents who have small families can provide more time, energy, resources and offer more help to each child. So decline in fertility in recent decades will in the normal course of things rise educational attainment.

    Our estimates depicts that the reduction in family size has accounted for 4% or 5% of the growth in years of schooling and completion of year 12 in school. Thatswhy it increased year 12 completion, and more of those who finish year 12 will decide to go on to university, So in that way this also indirectly increased university education, by about 3%. However, once students have completed year 12, after coming from a large family is now no longer a noticeable disadvantage, so changes in fertility do not account for any noticeable part of the growth in university completion among year 12 graduates

    The average household size in Australia is projected to decline from 2.6 people per household in 2001 to between 2.4 and 2.5 people per household in 2015. Australia's household size (2.5) in 2011 is projected to be smaller than New Zealand (2.6) and Japan (2.6), the same as the United States of America (2.5) and Canada (2.5), and larger than England (2.2).

    multicultural segment

    * population

    http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/Products/3218.0~2007-08~Main+Features~Main+Features?OpenDocument
    On 10 October 2009 at 10:51:20 PM (Canberra time), the resident population of Australia is projected to be:



    Since 30 June 2007, Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) reached 21.4 million at 30 June 2008, increasing by 359,300 people. The 2007-08 growth rate of 1.7% was more than the average annual growth rate of 1.5% for the five years to June 2008.

    All states and territories experienced population growth in 2007-08 with the largest population increases continuing to be recorded in Australia's three most populous states.

    * Queensland experienced the greatest growth (up by 97,900 people),

    * Victoria expreienced the second (92,500)

    And New South Wales (79,200).

    For last two consecutive years, Western Australia witnessed the fastest population growth rate, which was 2.8% in 2007-08, above of Queensland and the Northern Territory (both 2.3%) and Victoria (1.8%). The remaining states and territories had population growth rates below the Australian average, and Tasmania experiencing the slowest growth at 0.9%.

    In every territory and state, population growth generally continued to be most prominent in outer suburbs, inner cities area, some urban infill areas and along the coast; in contrast to populations declined in some inland, rural areas, particularly those that have been affected by drought in the last some years.

    Source: ChinaStones - http://china-stones.info/free-essays/business/family-structure.php


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