Design Of Agitator To Increase The Efficiency And Decrease The Time Required For Reaction In Pigment Industry

Pigment green 7 is generally organic pigment of polycyclic type Phthalocyanine pigment with chemical formula C32N8Cl16Cu.Pigment green 7 is used for multiple application including Printing Inks, Plastics, Paints, Textiles, Leather, paper and Rubber.
The manufacturing process of pigment green 7 involves the use of C.P.C Blue, AlCl3, NaCl (Na-Salt) and Cl2 gas as raw materials. Chlorination is the main process carried out. During the chlorination process the Flat Blade agitator that is currently used in industry consumes much electrical power and hence the reaction time for the reaction increases. The project here aims to design an agitator which will give less power consumption there by decreasing the time required for reaction, which alternately increases the production rate as well as the calculation shows that the replacement of the agitator would be economically feasible.
.

INDEX:
Sr.No Contain Page No

2. Abstract V
3. Declaration VI
4. List of table VII
5. Chapter:1 Introduction 1
6. 1.1 About Company 1
7. 1.2 Mission Statement 1
8. 1.3Environment and Safety 1
9. 1.4 Product Manufacturing in Company 2
10. 1.5Physical property 2
11. 1.6 Application 3
12. 1.7Problem Definition 3
1.8 Usefulness project to industry 3
13. Chapter: 2 History of Work 4
14 2.1 Row Material Requirement 4
15. 2.2 Table for a property of raw material 4
16. 2.3 Flow sheet of pigment Green7 5
17. 2.4 Process Description 6
18. 2.4.1 Chlorination Operation 6
19. 2.4.2 Dumping Operation 7
20. 2.4.3 Filtration Operation 8
21. 2.4.4 Pigmentation Process 9
22. 2.4.5 Scrubbing Operation 10
23. 2.4.6Chloromass Filtration 10
24. 2.4.7 Drying and Blending 10
25. Chapter: 3 Material & Energy Balance 11
26. 3.5 Calculation of Material Balance 11
27. 3.6 Calculation of Energy Balance 20
28. Chapter: 4 Design of gas induction type hollow
Agitator 24
29. 4.1 Advantage 29
30. 4.2 Disadvantage 29
31. Chapter: 5 Cost Estimation 30
32. 5.1 Cost Estimation (present plant) 30
33. 5.2 Cost Estimation (New plant) 36
34. Chapter:6 Plant layout 42
35. Chapter:7 Result & Conclusion 43
36. Chapter:8 Further development require for taking
innovation to user level or market 44
37. Chapter:9 Bibliography 45

LIST OF TABLE:
SR.NO Table No. Table Contain Page No
1 3.2 Table of Property of Raw material 4
2 3.5.1 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 1 13
3 3.5.2 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 2 14
4 3.5.3 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 3 15
5. 3.5.4 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 4 16
6. 3.5.5 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 5 17
7. 3.5.6 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 6 18
8. 3.5.7 Table of Material Balance for stage ' 7 19
9. 3.6.1 Table of component specific heat value & M.W 20

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION:
1.1ABOUT COMPANY
Meghmani have many plants in Gujarat producing different products.
ATVATVA SITE:
Certified :ISO 9001 ' 2000
Established :1986
Land Area: 9900 Sq.m
Manufacturer: - Phthalocynine Green 7 more popularly known as Pigment green 7.
Production Capacity: 1150 ton/batch
1.2MISSION STATEMENT
It aims to be leading global player in the manufacturing and marketing of pigments and agrochemical by:
Providing the highest quality of products and services.
Sustaining customer satisfaction through efficiency and reliability.
Ensuring the pride and satisfaction of our workforce.
Maintaining stringent standard of environmental safety and corporate responsibility.

1.3ENVIRONMENT & SAFETY
Have good records on Safety and loss prevention / minimization.
Have the necessary facilities to treat liquid / solid waste and air emission that contain pollution, in accordance with the requirements of the Gujarat pollution Control Board ('GPCB').
Are complying with rules and regulations of Indian Government on Health, Safety and Environment Protection.
Are ISO certified and also follow sound Health Safety and Environmental policy.
It is also found that following safe guards are in place at all the plants.
Fire fighting hand appliances are provided.
Work procedures and safety instructions provided.
Personal protective equipment is in place & in use.
Risk analysis is being carried out periodically.
Medical support is available to attend to occupational health related problems and supervision of trained first aid providers.
Some of our products and raw materials are considered hazardous.

1.4PRODUCT MANUFACTUREED IN COMPANY:
PIGMENT GREEN 7:
Pigment green ' 7 is generally organic pigment of polycyclic type phthalocynine
pigment

1.5 PHYSICAL PROPERTY:
Specific gravity = 1.80 ' 2.47 gm/ cc
Melting point = 480??C
Particle shape =Rodlike(Crystal)
Particle size = 3000 mesh
Specific surface area = 40 ' 85 sq. m/gm
Oil absorption = 30 ' 35 gmoile/100 gm of pigment
Moleculer Weight = 1056 kg/Kmol

PG 7is a chlorinated copper phthalocynine blue with bush green hue.
This pigment has only are crystal.
Hue of PG 7 depends upon the chlorine substitution higher chlorine content gives more yellow hue. Further yellow hue is achieved by particle
Substitution of bromine which gives brighter shade. Colour strength decreases as the shade becomes more yellow and as the molecular weight increases.PG 7 has excellent fastness properties. It has excellent solvent fastness, high fastness and weather resistance.

1.6APPLICATION:
It is used in most paint application. It satisfies the high standard of automotive OEM paints.
It is used in power coating application and has superior fastness properties compared to phthalocynine blue.
In printing ink application it is used in almost all ink system.
This pigment is used in most plastic application and is suitable for the mass coloration of synthetic fibre.
For rubber application low free copper content grades are used to avoid the rubber poisoning due to ageing of rubber.

1.7PROBLEM DEFINATION:

To design an agitator which will have much less power consumption and will give a reduced reaction time period than the existing one.

1.8USEFULNESS OF PROJECT TO INDUSTRY:

Use of gas induction type hollow agitator will provide better mixing of Cl2 gas than 3 blade marine type agitator.
Gas induction type hollow agitator will reduce power consumption from 7hp to 5hp.
As the loss of Cl2 gas will reduce, the amount of Cl2 gas required at the initial stage of the process will be less.
Also reaction time will decrease so that annual production capacity gets increased.
The annual profit of the company will also increase.

CHAPTER -2
BRIEF HISTORY OF WORK
A gas dispersion stirrer comprises a rotatable hollow shaft and at least one circular hollow stirring member disposed thereon wherein the cavity in the stirring member communicates with the hollow shaft. The stirring member has aeration apertures disposed in an outer peripheral portion thereof. The stirring member has flow-inducing blades for radically directing the liquid from the hollow shaft toward the aeration apertures. The gas dispersion stirrer effectively aerates liquids and achieves an improvement in mass transfer.
The invention relates to a gas dispersion stirrer comprising a rotatable hollow shaft and at least one hollow stirring member disposed thereon, where its cavity communicates with said hollow shaft and has apertures towards the liquid to be aerated.


Such stirrers are in general already known as hollow stirrers. The stirring members of such hollow stirrers are designed as tubular stirrers or triangular stirrers. Tubular stirrers consist of hollow tubular members radically protruding from the rotatable hollow shaft, whereas the triangular stirrer consists of a hollow triangular disk at whose corners corresponding apertures are provided for the discharge of the gas. Such hollow stirrers are self-aerating stirring members, i.e. as a result of the suction caused by the rotation of the stirrer they draw in gas from the space above the liquid and distribute the same in the liquid. They are used in particular in low-viscosity liquids for the case that the throughput of gas affected by them is sufficient for a desired reaction. On the other hand, the gas dispersion does not start until a minimum rotational speed is exceeded. The same is reached when the velocity pressure, which develops in the apertures of the stirrer as a result of the rotational speed of the stirrer, overcomes the hydrostatic pressure. The efficiency of the self-aeration in accordance with this known method is substantially influenced on the one hand by the increasing hydrostatic pressure (filling level), and on the other hand by an increasing viscosity of the liquid. As a result, such gas dispersion stirrers can in general not be used, for instance, in fomenters.
A further possibility of self-aeration consists in increasing the rotational speed of a conventional stirring member such that from the surface of the fluid to be stirred up to the stirring member a spout is formed. Such a spout type gas dispersion is, however, not applicable in many cases for process engineering reasons. Moreover, the same can also not be realized when high-viscosity liquids are used.
As compared to self-aeration, larger amounts of gas can be dispersed by the principle of forced aeration. In the forced aeration externally compressed gas is supplied to the stirring member in particular from the bottom by means of static gas distributors. As static gas distributors there are usually used open top tubes, single-ring or multi-ring sprinklers or also porous plates. The gas supplied in this way is chiefly dispersed by means of radically acting stirring members. In the process, the gas gets into the suction flow of the stirring member and is dispersed in particular in the turbulent back end flow (wakes) caused by the stirrer blades or stirrer arms.

2.1RAW MATERIAL REQUIRED FOR GREEN 7 :
Aluminium Chloride
Chlorine
Common salt
Mono Chloro Benzene
Copper phthalocyanine
Caustic soda (NaoH)
2.1TABLE FOR PROPERTIES OF RAW MATERIAL:
Property Aluminum Chloride MCB Common salt CPC Chlorine Gas Sodium Hydroxide
Chemical formula AlCl3 C6H5Cl NaCl C32H16N8Cu Cl2 NaOH
Molecular Weight (Kg/Kmol) 133.34 112.56 58.44 576.08 36.5 40
Specific gravity 2.44 1.099 2.165 1.57 2.49 2.13
Solubility in water Soluble In soluble Soluble In Soluble In soluble Soluble
Boiling point (??C) 120 131 1465 - -34.1 1388
Melting point (??C) 192 -45 801 600 -101 318
Color White - White Blue - White
Physical State Powder Liquid Crystal Powder Gas Powder

2.3FLOW SHEET OF PIGMENT GREEN 7.

TERMINOLOGY :
1.GLASS VESSEL 7.SCRUBER-3 13. PUMP-2
2. CONDENSER 8. NaOCl STORAGE TANK 14. MCB STORAGE
3. HCL STORAGE TANK 9. DUMPING VESSEL 15. SEPRATOR
4. ABSORBER 10. FILTER PRESS-1 16. CONDENSER
5. SCRUBER-1 11. PUMP-1 17. FILTER PRESS-2
6. SCRUBER-2 12. PIGMENTATION VESSEL 18. DRYER

2.3MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF PIGMENT GREEN 7
Chlorination operation
Scrubbing process
Dumping process
Filtration operation
Effluent treatment Plant
Pigmentation operation
Distillation
Condensation
Separation
Chloromass Filtration
Drying & Blending

STAGE-1
2.4.1CHLORINATION OPERATION

(AlCl3+ NaCl ) heat + (CPC Blue + Cl2) Slurry mass

Here are seven no of the Reactor for the chlorination purpose.
The chlorination operation is generally applied in the Glass LinedReactor, in which the material is heated with the help of hot oil.
For the chlorination operation AlCl3(Anhydrous Aluminium Chloride), NaCl
(Sodium Chloride), CPC blue (Coperphthalocynine blue) & Cl2 gas are used as a raw
material.
In this process first of all AlCl3&salt are mixed in the ratio of 5:1 in the glass lined reactor & the hot oil is applied in to the reactor jacket to heat it.
When the temperature reaches around 145 ??C to 150 ??C, then the CPC blue & CuCl2 is mixed into the mixture & continuously stirred by stirrer.
When the stirrer becomes hand free, then chlorine gas is passed through the molten mixture of AlCl3, CuCl2, CPC blue, & salt.
Total time circle for the chlorination purpose is 48 hr.
Due to the chlorination, bromination, oxidation, sulphonation, etc operations the harmful gasses are released from the top of the glass lined reactor, which converted into the harmless gasses into the scrubber, so scrubber is required for such type of operation.

STAGE-2
2.4.2DUMPING PROCESS

There are two numbers of drawing vessel for the dumping the process.
The dumping process is generally applied in MSRLTL (mild steel rubber lined tie lined) reactor, in which the process material is dumped.
The capacity of these equipment is 35-40 m3.
During the dumping operation, the thick molten mixture, which is coming out through the glass lined reactor, is directly dumped into the drawing vessel. In this operation first of all, drawing vessel is filled with water & HCL of 2.0 PH..
The amount of water is almost 20,000 lit.at normal temperature.
Then after we should add, the chlorinated material into the drawing vessel.
The whole process is done in close system, because if the very light quantity of moisture or water is touch with process material, then there be a chance of big an accident.
During the dumping process the molten mixture is stirrer by agitator 7 such type of harmful gasses released from the top of the reactor in little quantity, which is necessary to shucks the scrubbing method is applied.
Purpose of Dumping process :-
Dumping is applied for cools the chlorinated material from glass lined reactor & also remove the impurities like Al, Cu etc.
Why HCL is applied before dumping process in water :-
During the dumping process, when the hot molten mixture is directly dumped into the water, then the Aluminium Chloride does not dissolved in water & make a Precipitate which passed through the filter press & at last it comes with final product which is impurity.
So for the remove the impurities of Aluminium Chloride the HCL is applied in water in little quantity.

STAGE-3
2.4.3FILTRATION OPERATION

After the dumping process we get semi-solid product, which is filter in filter press.
The material for the construction of filter press is Polypropylenes.
The semi-solid product is passed through the filter-press to filter.
During the filtration, the material which is as it is as a wet cake (press cake) in the filter press & mother liquor is passed through the nozzle to ETP.
After applying thick mass in to the filter press. We applied water, to wash it & remove the impurities from it.
Water is also applied for remove the acidic nature from the wet cake. After applying water in wet cake, we applied an air to press it to remove water from wet cake as well as (acidic nature) excess acidity.
During the process almost all during this process almost all impurities are washed out with water, then after this wet cake is collected in other storage tank & applied for the pigment.
STAGE-4
2.4.4PIGMENTATION PROCESS

The pigmentation is generally applied after the filtration operation.
For the pigmentation first of all you should check the vessel.
Then after you should add 2000 lit water& 120 Kg NaOH (lay) + 50 Kg fatty acid + 30 (X ' Noigene) are charged.
The after you should add 7000 Kg MCB.
Then after stirrer is start for agitator.
After stirrer crude wet cake is applied.
After 15 hr. stirring, check the pH, which is generally 12+ 0.5 pH.
If you want to increase the pH of the solution, then you should apply NaOH.
Then after closed the man hole of the main vessel.
After closing the vessel start the Jacket heating & maintain the pressure up to 2+5 Kg/ cm2.
This pressure is maintained into the vessel up to 5 hr or 5 hr. Reflux.
The mass is heated up to 100 + 5 'C.
Because up to 100 'C water is converted into the vapour with MCB because temperature of both solution is near.
After reaching the temperature up to 100 C cooling method is applied.
Then after vapour column valve is open for distillation with live steam.
Then after the live steam is passing through the condenser for condense the mixture of water & MCB.
After condensing the reflux process is applied for 6 hours.
From the bottom of the separator tank, MCB is collected in another tank by recovery process which is further use in this pigmentation process. So, ultimately capital cost is less.
In pigmentation process the mass is heated with the help of steam. Which circulated in limped coil.
During the pigmentation process the distillation is applied for 40 + 15 'C.
After the pigmentation the filtration operation is applied.

STAGE-5
2.4.5SCRUBBING OPERATION

Due to the chlorination, bromination, oxidation, sulphonation, etc operations the harm full gasses are released from the top of the glass lined reactor, which converted into the harmless gasses into the scrubber, so scrubber is required for such type of operation.
In the scrubbing process, the HCl as well as the Cl2gas is scrubbed.
In the firstventuri scrubber almost 80% HCl gas is scrubbed in water due to the water circulation by the pump.
As HCl is highly water soluble at low temperature of water.
Remaining 20% unconverted gasses is passed through the packed tower in which, remaining HCl is absorb with the cold water.
In second scrubber 15% HCl is absorb & remaining 5% gas is absorbed into third scrubber.
But Cl2gas is insoluble in water, which is scrubbed at last because Cl2 will not scrubbed by water.
HCl scrubbed by NaOH& react with it & make a hypo product in the fourth separator packed tower & separate the caustic storage tank.
The caustic solution will be circulated in packed tower at 10 ' 15'c
Which will give hypo solution as per reaction mention below.
2NaOH + Cl2 ' NaOCl + NaCl +H2O
The air which is vent from the third packed tower is almost completely free from gasses.

STAGE-6
2.4.6CHLOROMASS FILTRATION

After the pigmentation process, we get wet cake from the S.S. reactor.
Now, the Filtration operation is applied which is known as Chloromass Filtration.
Chloromass is fed to the filter press at pressure of 2 kg/cm2& is washed to
neutralize the cake.
Then the cake is sent to the drying of blending.

STAGE-7
2.4.7DRYING AND BLENDING

After the Chloromass filtration it is goes for the Drying & Blending purpose.
According to fig of drying, the wet mass is dried with the help of hot air
generator.
There are spin flash type drier is applied for the drying purpose.
In this drier, the wet mass is heated by hot air & the atmospheric air is applied
with the help of HAG (Hot Air Generator)
In another side another blower is situated for creating vaccum.
Due to the creating the vaccum, the mass is passed through the separator &
bag filter.
First of all feed is charged in drying by conveyor to drier.
In which motor is applied for Rotate the disk of drier.
And Hot air is applied for the drying purpose.
Due to the vaccum the mass is passed at up side from the bottom side

CHAPTER:3
MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE

3.5CALCULATION FOR MATERIAL BALANCE
Reaction:
CPC + 14Cl2 P.G 7 + 14HCl
NaOH + HClNaCl+H2O
HCl + H2O Dilute HClsolution
Basis: 1000kg(1 ton) production of P.G7
STAGE: 1
M.B around the reactor
CuCl2 Cl2


CPC
AlCl3
Na Salt P P1 to drawing vessel

Molecular weight
CPC = 576
AlCl3 = 133.34
Cl2 = 70.91
Common salt(NaCl) =58.45
Mono ChloroBenzen(C6H5Cl) =113
Pigment green 7 (C32N8Cl16Cu) = 1058
NaOH = 40
Actual reacted CPC
M.W of CPC = M.W of P.G 7
576 = 1058
(?) = 1000
= 1000*576/1058
= 544.42 Kg
Here yield is Assumed to be 95% based on P.G7
Actual charged CPC = 544.4/.95 = 573.07 kg
Unreacted CPC = 573.07 ' 544.42 = 28.65kg
Actual reacted Cl2
M.W of Cl2= M.W of P.G 7
14*71 = 1058
(?) = 1000
= 1000*14*71/1058
=939.50 Kg
Take 60% Excess of Cl2 = 1.6*939.50=1503.2Kg
Here yield is Assumed to be 95% based on P.G7
Actual charged Cl2 =1503.2/.95=1582.31Kg
Unreacted Cl2= 1582.31 ' 939.50 = 642.81Kg
Product of HCl
M.W OfHCl = M.W of P.G7
14*36.5 = 1058
(?) = 1000
= 1000*14*36.5/1058 = 482.986 Kg Hcl

Catalyst:
AlCl3=1665kg
Cucl2= 62.5Kg
Na salt = 400kg
3.5.1 Table of Material Balance for stage-1
Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
CPC 573.07 28.65
Cl2 1582.31 642.81
AlCl3 1655 1655
CuCl2 62.5 62.5
Na-Salt 400 400
HCl 0 482.986
P.G7 0 1000
Total 4272.88 4272.88

Stage 2
M.B around the Dumping kettle vessel
H2O


P1 to Reactor
P2 to filter press

Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 1000
CPC 28.65 28.65
Cl2 642.81 642.81
AlCl3 1655 1655
CuCl2 62.5 62.5
Na-Salt 400 400
Water 7500 7500
Total 11288.96 11288.96
3.5.2 Table of Material Balance for stage-2:

Stage:3
M.B around the Filter Press:
Water

P2 form drawing vessel
P3 to Pigmentation vessel

Water + Catalyst (Na salt + AlCl3 mixture)

Product of dumping kettle = P.G7+ CuCl2+ Water + (Na-salt + AlCl3)
= 1000+62.5+7500+2055
= 10617.5
Contain product 20% dry basis = 10617.5*0.20=2123.5Kg
35% solid content in slurry on dry basis = 1000/0.35= 2857.14Kg
Water= 2857.14 ' 1000 = 1857.14Kg
Water present in mother liquor = 7500 ' 1857.14 = 5642.86Kg

Wet cake contain:
P.G7 = 1000Kg
Water = 1857.14Kg
Total mother liquor = Water + Catalyst = 70000+5642.86+2117.5+28.65= 77789.01K
3.5.3 Table of Material Balance for stage-3:
Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 1000
CPC 28.65 0
AlCl3 1655 0
CuCl2 62.5 0
Na-Salt 400 0
Water 7500 1857.4
Water added 70000 0
Mother Liquor 0 77789.01
Total 80646.15 80646.15

Stage 4:
M.B around the pigmentation vessel
MCB Water NaOH MCB+ Water vapour to condenser

P3 form filter press P4 to filter
Press

3.5.4Table of material balance for stage-4:
Component Material In(Kg) Unreacted(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 0 1000
Emulsifier 50 49.5 0.5
NaOH 155 1.55 153.45
Water 1857.14 0 18.14
MCB 4550 0 45.50
Add Water 1500 0 0
MCB+watervapour 0 0 6004.5
9112.14 51.05 9061.09
Total 9112.14 (51.05+9061.09=9112.14)

Here MCB, NaOH , and Emulsifier reacted in this step 1%.

Stage 5:
M.B around filter press 2:
Water


P4 from pigmentation vesselP5 to
Centrifuge

Mother liquor containing salt and water

45% Solid contain in sludge of P.G7= 1000/.45=2222.22Kg
Water= 2222.22 ' 1000 = 1222.22Kg
Mother liquor = water + soluble salt =150000+ (1857.14 - 1222.22)+(50+155)+45.50
= 150885Kg

3.5.5Table of material balance for stage-5:
Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 1000
Emulsifier 50 0
NaOH 155 0
Water 1857.14 1222.22
MCB 45.50 0
Add Water 150000 0
Mother liquor 0 150885
Total 153107.64 153107.64

Stage-6:
M.B around the centrifuge:
P5 form filter press 2 P6 to Dryer P6 to
Dryer

Water

1222.22 kg water present in product of stage 5
60% water remove = 1222.22*0.60 = 773.33Kg.
Output cake :
P.G7 = 1000Kg
Water = 1222.22 ' 733.33 = 488.88Kg

3.5.6 Table of material balance for stage-6:
Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 1000
Water 1222.22 488.88
Water removed 0 733.34
Total 2222.22 2222.22

Stage:7
M.B around the Dryer:
Saturated air at 55 ??C

P6 form 55 ??Centrifuge P7 Dry pigment
For pulverization
Hot air at 70 ??C and 40% humidity

Input to the Dryer:-

Wet cake from the centrifuge, P6 containing
P.G. ' 7 - 1000 kg
Water - 488.88 kg
Air at 70oC and 40% humidity.
Hence absolute humidity of entering air (from psychometric chart)
= 0.11 kg moisture / kg of dry air.

Output from the dryer:-
Dried Product containing
P.G. ' 7 - 1000 kg
Water - 1 kg
Saturated air 55oC with absolute humidity = 0.115 kg moisture/kg dry air.

Moisture evaporated
= (Moisture in entering cake) ' (Moisture in leaving product)
= 488.88 kg ' 1 kg
= 487.88kg of moisture is evaporated in air per batch

Now moisture taken up by air per kg
= (Absolute humidity of leaving air) ' (Absolute of entering air)= 0.115 ' 0.11
= 0.005 kg moisture evaporated per kg of dry air.
Hence, dry air supplied to the dryer per batch is
= (Total moisture evaporated) / (kg moisture evaporated per kg dry air)
= 487.88/0.005
= 97576 kg dry air required per batch.

3.5.7 Table of material balance for stage-7:

Component Material In(Kg) Material Out(Kg)
P.G7 1000 1000
Water 488.88 1
Moisture remove 0 487.88
Total 1488.88 1488.88

3.6 CALCULATION FOR ENERGY BALANCE
3.6.1 Table of component specific heat value & M.W
Name of material Notation M.W. Cp(J/kg.K)
CPC R1 576 1049.9
Cl2 R2 70.91 502.25
Na-salt C1 58.5 899.989
AlCl3 C2 133.34 784.03
H2O S1 18 4187
P.G.7 P1 1058 853.71
HClSoluction P1 36.5 2475
M.C.B C3 113 146.54

Stage : 1
E.B around the reactor:
Heat required in the reactor per batch
=(Enthalpy of reactant ' Enthalpy of product + Heat of reaction)
Water Cl2 Condensate


CPC
AlCl3
Na Salt P1 90??C to drawingvessel

Heating steam
Basis: 1000kg of P.G7.
Actual charged kmol of CPC=573.07/575=0.9949Kmol
Actual charged kmol of Cl2=1583.2/70.91=22.29Kmol
Actual charged kmol of Alcl3=1655/133.94=12.35Kmol
Actual charged kmol of Na-salt= 400/58.5=6.8376kmol
Actual charged kmol of H2O=7500/18=416.66Kmol
Kmol Product of P.G7 = 1000/1058 = 0.9451Kmol
Kmol Product of HCl = 482.986/36.5=13.232Kmol
'H= ('(Enthalpy of ractant ) + (Heat of reaction) ' (Enthalpy of product))
'H1= (sensible heat req. by each reactant to reach reaction Temp. 150??C )
=nCp'T (all reactant component CPC, Water, AlCl3 ,Na-salt ,Cl2 )
=(0.9949*60*1049.9)+(22.29*60*502.25)+(12.35*60*784.03.)+(6.8376*60*899.48)+
(416.66*60*4187)
=106357694.1 J/Kmol.K
=106357.6947KJ/Kmol.K
'H2= 619.85*10^3 KJ/Batch
'H3= Enthalpy of product at 90??C
=nCp'T (all product component P.G7 ,HCl solution)
= (0.9751*60*853.71)+ (13.232*60*2475)
=2013393.213 J/Kmol.K
=2013.393213 KJ/Kmol.K
'H = 'H3+'H2 - 'H1
= 2013.393+619850 ' 106357.6947
= 2526.885523 KJ/Kmol.K
This heat is provided by steam heating the steam used for the heating in jacket is saturated steam of 1.2 atm pressure.
Latent heat of saturated steam at this pressure = 2240.9KJ/kg
Quality of steam required = 2526885.523/2240.9=1127.62 Kg per batch

Stage :2
E.B around pigmentation vessel
MCB Water NaOH MCB+ Water vapour to H.E.

P3 form filter press P4 to filter 40??C

Actual charged kmol of MCB=4550/113=40.265kmol
Actual charged kmol of Water = 1857.14/18=103.10Kmol
Actual charged kmol of P.G7 =1000/1058=0.945 Kmol
Actual charged kmol of NaOH= 55/40=1.375Kmol
Actual charged kmol of water = 1500/18=83.33Kmol
'H1 = Enthalpy of reactant = nCp'T(all reactant component MCB, Water,P.G7,NaOH )
Here 'T= 100 ' 40 =60??C
'H1= (40.265*60*146.54)+(103.1*60*4187)+(0.945*60*853.71)+(1.375*60*28.7)+(83.33*60*4187)
=47739.686KJ/Kmol.K
'H2= Enthalpy of produtrct = nCp'T(all product component (MCB+Water ) vapor , water, P.G7)
'H2={0.95*(146.54*40.265*60)+(1500.14*60*4187)}+(1857.14*4187*60)+(0.945*60*853.71)
= 824957.34KJ/Kmol.K
'H='H2 - 'H1
= 824957.34-47739.686
= 777217.659KJ/Kmol.K (heat absorb)
Latent heat of saturated steam at this pressure = 2240.9KJ/kg
Quality of steam required = 777217.659/2240.9 = 346.836 Kg/batch

Stage: 3
E.B around the Dryer
Saturated air at 55 ??C

P6 form 55 ??C Centrifuge P7 dried pigment
pulverization 45??C
Hot air at 70 ??C and 40% humidity

Here 'T = 55 -45 = 10??C
Heat taken by dry product = 1000*853.71*10 + 1*4187*10 = 8579.00 KJ
Heat required for evaporation of moisture = (487.88*4187*10) + (487.88*2370.92
= 21559.927KJ
Heat lost in Air (psychometric chart)
Enthalpy of entering air = 2100KJ/Kg dry air
Enthalpy of leaving air = 350 KJ/ kg dry air
Enthalpy in air per batch = 39800*(2100 - 350) = 69.95 * 10^6 KJ/batch(Total heat required.

Chapter:4
DESIGN FOR GAS INDUSTION HOLLOW TYPE AGITATOR
4.1GAS INDUCTION TYPE HOLLOW AGITATOR
1. Gas induction type hollow agitator is new innovation for this application. Special type of impeller is attached with hollow shaft. In the upper part of the hollow shaft, windows are provided for gas suction. Gas enters from these windows and discharge through the lowest part of the impeller. The agitator operates on the principle of water jet ejector. The suction so generated blows the stirrer edges during the rotation and hence gas enters though windows and discharge from e bottom of impeller to liquid pool. A Specially designed impeller vigorously disperse the gas bubbles and creates a mixture akin to a boiling liquid. Gas bubbles react with liquid as they rise. Unreacted gas is reinduced into the liquid through windows. Recirculation of gas is important because bubbling of gas only once through the liquid does not use it up completely.

DESIGN
Design of gas induction type hollow agitator:
Design Data:
Diameter of tank(vessel)=1600mm
Straight height=1755mm
Top height=460mm
Total height=2255mm
Shaft diameter dw =110 mm

Design condition:
Mixture density=1743.3 Kg/m3
Temperature =160 to 1265 '
Time = 48 Hour (Chlorination Process)
Pressure = 12 Kg/cm21

(FIG : GAS INDUCTION TYPE HOLLOW AGITATOR )

Mechanical data:
MOC:Mild Steel Glasslined
Solution:
Various Parameter of Design:
(1)h/d=1 (2)H/D=1 (3)D/S=10 (4)A=1.5 dw2
(5) d/dN =3 (6)d/dri =7.5 (7) d/dro=6 (8)W/Da=1/5
(9) D/d=3
Where,
d= Diameter of agitator
D= Diameter of tank
H=Height of bottom surface of tank and bottom surface of agitator.
A=Area under the hole.
dri= Inside diameter of blade
dro Outside diameter of blade.
S=thickness of baffles.
W=Width of blade.
(1)H/D=1
H=D=1600mm
(2) D/d=3
d= D/3 = 1600/3 = 533.33mm
(3) h/d =1
h= d= 533.33mm
(4) W/Da 1/5
W= Da =533.3/5 106.666mm
(5) ) d/dN =3
dN= d/3 = 533.3/3 = 177.776mm
(6) D/S =10
S=D/10 =1600/10= 160mm
(7) d/dro=6
dro = d/6 = 533.33/6 = 88.88mm
(8)d/dri =7.5
Dri=533.33/7.5 = 71.110mm
(9)A=1.5 dw2
=1.5(110)2
A=18150 mm2
(10) H* =H-h =1600-533.33= 1066.7mm

Power Calculation :
Frd/H*=1.80
Where
Fr=Frode Number = n2d/g

'n2d/g * d/H* = 1.80

n2= 1.80 * g* H*/d2
n2= 1.80 * 9.8* 1.0667/(.533)2
n= 8.13759 RPS
n= 8.13759 * 60= 488.25= 490 RPM
Frode No = n2d/g
= (8.13759)2 * (.5333)/9.81
Fr= 3.60439

No of Power
Np=Ne=[.42+Exp(-.317 Fr-.616)] * (H*/d).25
=[.42+Exp(-1.757248)] * (1.0667/0.533).25
=.704618 =.70

Power Calculation :
Np= P gc/??n3d5
.704618 = P(9.81)/(1743)(8.166)3(.533)5

P= 2941.46KW
P= 3.870HP
Out Power of ElectricMotorRequired :
= 3.8070 * Power loss in transmition * Power loss in Sealing System
=3.8070 * 1.1 *1.2
= 5.2 HP
Calculation of Head transfer Co-efficient :
Calculate Jacket Head transfer Co-efficient=
hjDe/k =0 .027 Re0.8 Pr0.33[(??/??w)0.14(1+3.5(De/Dj)]
De=Equivalent diameter for cross section, m
De=4W
W=Width of jacket, m
Re=Dev??/??
Calculation:
dji= W=120mm
De=4 *0.12 = 0.48m
(??/??w)= 1
Cp= Specific Heat=2.95 Kj/Kg'
v = Velocity of oil= 1.5 m/s
??= Viscosity of oil = .5 Cp
??= Density of oil =710 Kg/m3
k = Thermal conductivity =.1 (W/m')
Re=Dev??/?? = 0.48 *1.5*710/ 0.5 *10-3 = 1022400>10,000
Pr = Prandlet Number
= Cp??/k
=2.95 * 0.5*10-3*10*3/.1
=14.75
Dj= Djo+Dji/2 Mean diameter of jacket m.
Djo = O.D. of Jacket =126mm
Dji= I.D. of Jacket =120mm
Dj= 126+120/2
= 246/2 =123mm
hj = k/De * 0 .027 Re0.8 Pr0.33[(??/??w)0.14(1+3.5(De/Dj)]
= .1/.48 * 0.027 * (1022400)0.8 * (14.75).33[1+3.5(.48/.123)
= 878.052 * 14.6585
=12863.47 W/m2'
hj = 12.863 KW/m2'

4.2Advantages:
1. It provides vigorous gas liquid mixing.
2. It substantially increases gas-liquid interfacial area of and enhance gas-liquid mass transfer rate.
3.It provides very high vessel side coefficient which approaches a boiling coefficient .
4.It is also the best choice for the gas-liquid reaction with suspended solid catalyst.
5. It reduces reaction time considerably for the gas-liquid reaction in which overall reaction rate governed by rate of mass transfer.

4.3Disadvantages:
1. Fixed cost is very high compare to other type agitator.
2. It is only used for special case.
3. It's fabrication is very difficult.

CHAPTER:5
COST ESTIMATION
5.1COST ESTIMATION (Plant with gas induction hollow type agitator):
An acceptable plant design must present a process that is capable of operating under conditions which will yield a profit. Since net profit equals total income minus all expenses, it is essential that the chemical engineer be aware of the many different types of costs involved in manufacturing process.
In the analysis of costs in industrial processes, capital-investment costs, manufacturing costs and general expenses including income taxes must be taken into consideration.
BASIS:
Plant Capacity: 2310Kg/day
Total Working Days: 360
Annual Capacity:831600Kg/year

EQUIPMENT COST (PEC):

Equipment No. Of Equipment Cost of 1 Equipment Costs (Rs.)
Glass lined reactor 7 1200000 8400000
Dumping vessel 2 800000 1600000
Filter Press 5 900000 4500000
Pigmentation vessel 4 1400000 5600000
Scrubber 1 2100000 2100000
Condenser 2 560000 1120000
Spin flash dryer 1 3850000 3850000
Auxiliary - - 150000
Total 27420000

In the estimation the following items are founds:
Total Capital Investment (TCI)
Total Product Cost (TPC)
Gross Profit (GP)
Net Profit (NP)
Rate of Return (ROR)
Pay out Period (POP)
Break Even Point (BEP)
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT (TCI)
The sum of the Fixed-capital investment and the Working capital is known as the total capital investment.
Fixed Capital Investment (FCI):
The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called the fixed capital Investment.
Fixed cost is the sum of the Direct cost (DC) and Indirect cost (IC).
Table for Direct Costs (DC):
Type % of PEC Cost (Rs.)
Installation 1 272200
Instrumentation 5 1361000
Piping 12 3266400
Electricity 6 1633200
Building 10 2722000
Yard 3.5 952700
Services 17 4627400
Land 1 272200
Total DC 15107100

Indirect Costs (IC):
Type % of PEC Cost (Rs.)
Supervision 5 1361000
Construction 12 3266400
Legal 2 544400
Contractor's 3 816600
Contingency 6 1633200
Total IC 7621600

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) =DC+IC
= 15107100+7621600
=22728700Rs/-
Working Capital Investment (WCI) = 15% of FCI
= 3409305Rs/-

Total Capital Investment = FCI+WCI
= 22728700+3409305
=26138005Rs/-

TOTAL PRODUCTION COST (TPC)

Total production cost is the sum of raw material, manufacturing cost and general expenses.

Manufacturing Cost (MC)

Fixed Charges (FC):
Type % of FCI Cost(Rs.)
Depreciation 15 3409305
Taxes 2 454574
Insurance 0.5 113643.5
Total FC 3977522.5

2.Direct Production Costs (DPC):
Total Fixed Charges = 20% of Total Production Charges
Total Production Charges (TPC) = TFC/0.2
= 3977522.5/.2
=19887612.5Rs/-
Type Characteristic Cost(Rs.)
Maintenance 3% of FCI 119325.675
Operating Supplies (OS) 10% of Maintenance 11932.5675
Lab Charges 10% of OS 1193.25675
Utilities 100% of TPC 19887612.5
Operating Labour (OL) 10% of TPC 1988761.25
Direct Supervisory (DS) 10% of OL 198876.125
Total DPC 22207701.37

3.Plant Overhead Charges (POC) = 60% (OL+DS)
= 0.6(1988761.25+198876.125)
=1312582.425Rs/-

Total Manufacturing Cost =FC + DPC + POC
= 3977522.5+22207701.37+1312582.425 =27497806.3Rs/-
General Expenses (GE):
Type Characteristic Cost Rs.)
Administrative Cost 50% of OL 994380.625
Distributive Cost 3% of FC 119325.675
R&D 4% of FC 159100.19
Finance Interest 10% of TCI 2613800
Total GE 3886607.7
Raw Material Cost:
Cost of cpc = 300*617 kg=185100Rs/-
Cost of nacl salt = 6*432Kg=2592Rs/-
Cost of MCB= 70*50Kg=3500Rs/-
Cost of alcl3=25*1785Kg=44550Rs/-
Cost of cl2 gas=60*1700Kg=102000Rs/-
Cost of NaOH=40*165Kg=6600Rs/-
Cost of cucl2 =200*67.5Kg=13500Rs/-

Total Cost Of RMC=357842Rs/-

RMC Per Year=770*357842=275538340Rs/-

Total Production Cost(TPC)=RMC+GE+MC
=275538340+3886607.7+27497806.3
=306922754Rs/-
GROSS PROFIT (GP)

Gross Profit = Total Revenue ' Total Product Cost

Total Revenue = Pigment Green7 product/year * selling price
= 1080*770*550
= 457380000Rs/-

Gross Profit = TR ' TPC

= 457380000-306922754
= 150457246Rs/-

NET PROFIT (NP)
Net profit is the profit gained after income tax.
Net profit = GP ' income tax
Income tax is 34% of GP earned.
NP = GP ' (0.34) GP
=99301782.36Rs/-
RATE OF RETURN (ROR)
Rate of Return before tax = GP/TCI * 100
= (150457246/26138005)*100
=575.62

Rate of Return after tax = NP/TCI * 100
= (99301782.36/26138005)*100
=385.80

PAY OUT PERIOD (POP)
Pay out Period = (depreciable FCI) / (Avg. Profit per yr + Avg. Depreciation per yr)
Average depreciation per year = dep. of equipment + dep. of building
=119325.625+2854.649
=122180.324Rs/-
Assuming salvage value at the end of service life = 5% of FCI
=0.05*20390700
=1019535Rs/-
POP = (457380000) / (99301782.36+122180.324)
= 4. 6 years

BREAK EVEN POINT (BEP)
At BEP, total annual produced cost = total annual sales.
The total annual product cost is the sum of the fixed cost and there direct production cost.
The total annual sale is the product of the number of unit and the selling price per unit.
Fixed Cost = 3977522.5Rs/-
Variable Cost = raw material cost + utility cost
= 275538340+8183000
= 283721340Rs/-
Contributions = sales ' variable cost
=457380000 - 283721340
= 173658660Rs/-
Breakeven point = (FC/contribution) * 100
=(3977522.5/173658660)*100
= 28 Month
Hence, plant can earn profit only when it runs more than28 month of installed capacity.
Pay out period for plant is 4.60 years. So after 4.60 years we get our invested money back.

5.2COST ESTIMATION (Existing plant):
BASIS:
Plant Capacity: 2000 kg/day
Total Working Days: 360
Annual Capacity: 720000 kg/year

EQUIPMENT COST (PEC):

Equipment No. Of Equipment Cost of 1 Equipment Costs (Rs.)
Glass lined reactor 7 800000 5600000
Dumping vessel 2 800000 1600000
Filter Press 5 900000 4500000
Pigmentation vessel 4 1400000 5600000
Scrubber 1 2100000 2100000
Condenser 2 560000 1120000
Spin flash dryer 1 3850000 3850000
Auxiliary - - 150000
Total 24420000

In the estimation the following items are founds:
Total Capital Investment (TCI)
Total Product Cost (TPC)
Gross Profit (GP)
Net Profit (NP)
Rate of Return (ROR)
Pay out Period (POP)
Break Even Point (BEP)
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT (TCI)
The sum of the Fixed-capital investment and the Working capital is known as the total capital investment.
Fixed Capital Investment (FCI):
The capital needed to supply the necessary manufacturing and plant facilities is called the fixed capital Investment.
Fixed cost is the sum of the Direct cost (DC) and Indirect cost (IC).
Direct Costs (DC):
Type % of PEC Cost (Rs.)
Installation 1 244200
Instrumentation 5 1221000
Piping 12 2930400
Electricity 6 1465200
Building 10 2442000
Yard 3.5 854700
Services 17 4151400
Land 1 244200
Total DC 13553100

Indirect Costs (IC):
Type % of PEC Cost (Rs.)
Supervision 5 1221000
Construction 12 2930400
Legal 2 488400
Contractor's 3 732600
Contingency 6 1465200
Total IC 6837600

Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) = DC+IC
= 13553100+6837600
=20390700Rs/-
Working Capital Investment (WCI) = 15% of FCI
= 3058605Rs/-

Total Capital Investment = FCI+WCI
= 20390700+3058605
=23449305Rs/-

TOTAL PRODUCTION COST (TPC)

Total production cost is the sum of raw material, manufacturing cost and general expenses.

Manufacturing Cost (MC)

Fixed Charges (FC):
Type % of FCI Cost(Rs.)
Depreciation 15 3058605
Taxes 2 407814
Insurance 0.5 101953.5
Total FC 3568372.5

2.Direct Production Costs (DPC):
Total Fixed Charges = 20% of Total Production Charges
Total Production Charges (TPC) = TFC/0.2
= 3568372.5/0.2
=17841862.5Rs/-
Type Characteristic Cost(Rs.)
Maintenance 3% of FCI 107051.175
Operating Supplies (OS) 10% of Maintenance 10705.1175
Lab Charges 10% of OS 1070.51175
Utilities 100% of TPC 17841862.5
Operating Labour (OL) 10% of TPC 1784186.25
Direct Supervisory (DS) 10% of OL 178418.625
Total DPC 19923294.18

3.Plant Overhead Charges (POC) = 60% (OL+DS)
= 0.6(1784186.25+178418.625)
=1177562.925Rs/-
Total Manufacturing Cost =FC + DPC + POC
= 3568372.5+19923294.18+1177562.9 =24669229.58Rs/-

General Expenses (GE):
Type Characteristic Cost (Rs/-)
Administrative Cost 50% of OL 892093.125
Distributive Cost 3% of FC 107051.175
R&D 4% of FC 142734.9
Finance Interest 10% of TCI 2344930.5
Total GE 3486809.7

Raw Material Cost:
Cost of cpc= 300*617 kg=185100Rs/-
Cost of nacl salt = 6*432Kg=2592Rs/-
Cost of MCB= 70*50Kg=3500Rs/-
Cost of alcl3=25*1785Kg=44550Rs/-
Cost of cl2 gas=60*1700Kg=102000Rs/-
Cost of NaOH=40*165Kg=6600Rs/-
Cost of cucl2=200*67.5Kg=13500Rs/-

Total Cost Of RMC=357842Rs/-

RMC Per Year=665*357842=237964930Rs/-

Total Production Cost(TPC)
Total Production Cost =RMC+GE+MC
=237964930+3486809.7+24669229.58
=266120969.3Rs/-
GROSS PROFIT (GP)
Gross Profit = Total Revenue ' Total Product Cost

Total Revenue = Pigment Green7 product/year * selling price
= 1080*665*550
= 395010000Rs/-
Gross Profit = TR ' TPC

= 395010000-266120969.3

= 128889030.7Rs/-

NET PROFIT (NP)
Net profit is the profit gained after income tax.
Net profit = GP ' income tax
Income tax is 34% of GP earned.
NP = GP ' (0.34) GP
=85066760.26Rs/-
RATE OF RETURN (ROR)
Rate of Return before tax = GP/TCI * 100
= (128889030.7/23449305)*100
=549.64

Rate of Return after tax = NP/TCI * 100
= (85066760.26/2344930500)*100
=362.7687

PAY OUT PERIOD (POP)
Pay out Period = (depreciable FCI) / (Avg. Profit per yr + Avg. Depreciation per yr)
Average depreciation per year = dep. of equipment + dep. of building
=107051.175+2854.649
=109905.873Rs/-
Assuming salvage value at the end of service life = 5% of FCI
=0.05*20390700
=1019535Rs/-
POP = (395010000) / (85066760.26 +109905.873)
= 4.03 years

BREAK EVEN POINT (BEP)
At BEP, total annual produced cost = total annual sales.
The total annual product cost is the sum of the fixed cost and there direct production cost.
The total annual sale is the product of the number of unit and the selling price per unit.
Fixed Cost = 3568372.5Rs/-
Variable Cost = raw material cost + utility cost
= 237964930+81183000
= 246147930Rs/-
Contributions = sales ' variable cost
=395010000 '246147930
= 148862070Rs/-
Breakeven point = (FC/contribution) * 100
=(3568372.5/148862070)*100
= 30Month ,20 Days
Hence, plant can earn profit only when it runs more than30month, 20 Days of installed capacity.
Pay out period for plant is 4.03 years. So after 4.03 years we get our invested money back

CHAPTER:6
PLANT LAYOUT
6.1PLANT LAYOUT:


(PLANT LAYOUT)

CHAPTER:7
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
7.1RESULT
Below table shows the results for the plant with old agitator (SIMPLE PROPELLER TYPE AGITATOR) and new agitator (GAS INDUCTION TYPE HOLLOW AGITATOR):

SR.NO EXITING
PLANT NEW
PLANT
1 Annual Capacity 831600Kg/year 720000 kg/year

2 Power consumption 7.2 HP 5.2HP
3 Time required 48Hour 32-35 Hour
4 Annual Production 720 tone/year 832 tone/year
5 Break Even Point 30 month 28month
6 Annual Profit 8.506676 crore 9.93017823crore
7. Gross Profit 12.88890307 crore 15.0457246 crore
8. Net Profit 9.93017823 crore 8.506676 crore

7.2CONCLUSION
The project aimed at designing the Gas Induction type hollow agitator as a replacement to the existing one i.e., three-blade propeller, so that the power consumption and reaction time period gets reduced.
To design, material balance and energy balance were carried out. The material balance with the new agitator showed that the number of product batches gets increased which increases the overall production. Due to the increase in overall production, cost estimation of the plant with Gas Induction type hollow agitator showed an increase in Annual Profit, Net Profit, Gross Profit and breakeven point of 28 months compared to the existing one.
Hence, it can be concluded that the plant with Gas Induction type hollow agitator will be beneficial in many respects as well as economical to the industry.

CHAPTER-8
FURTHER DEVELOPEMENT REQUIRE FOR TAKING INNOVATION TO USER LEVEL OR MARKET

The harmful acidic vent gas in atmosphere generated through chlorination process can be minimized using scrubbing.

Better gas-solid mixing can be obtained if helical type agitator is used instead of gas induction hollow type agitator.

CHAPTER-9
BIBLIOGRAPHY
RICHARDSON, J. F. (2001). Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering
Process Heat Transfer - Donald Kern
Heat Transfer ' Gupta Prakashan
Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook
Thakore S.B. and B.I Bhatt 'Introduction to Process Engineering and Design' Tata McGraw hill Publications Co. Ltd., pg. 215, 681
Handbook of Chemical Processing Equipment by N.P.Cheremisinoff
Frank D. Kover, United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Toxic Substance.
Chemical Process Industry, Dryden &Shrieve
WEBSITES:

http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/agitator design
http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
www.google.com/patents
www.freepatentsonline.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pigment green 7.
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/pigment green 7.html
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/pigment
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medline/ency/article/000774.htm
www.tutorvista.com
www.indindatabase.com

Source: ChinaStones - http://china-stones.info/free-essays/engineering/design-agitator.php



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